## Saturday, August 8, 2009

### 1: 60 rule in air traffic

AIR TRAFFIC 1: 60 RULE

angular

It is based on the mathematical principle that a turn of 1 degree at 60 miles is equal to 1 mile displacement at the destination. (right angled triangle where the base is 60 miles. For every degree of angle = 1 mile at the opposite side)

For example: MH1286 is inbound on the ADNUT track heading 090 and is 60 miles away. If you give him a turn of 1 degree left ( heading 089 OR 091 ) then he will be 1 mile RIGHT OR LEFT of track at scHOOL. Likewise, if you give him a turn of 10 degrees left ( heading 080 ) he will be 10 miles left of track. You can also prove this by plotting.

speed

When we (at SATC) talk about speed control sometimes we tend to refer it as 1:60 rule as well. For example a 737 travelling at 300 kts. at 60 NM away. Using 1:60 rule we know that the aircraft will cover about 5NM/min. Therefore, we can estimate the ETA as plus 12 mins. Applying appropriate speed reduction we can fit in the Boeing into our traffic sequence.

## Friday, August 7, 2009

### vh-ice emergency landing

EMERGENCY LANDING

07 August 09- VH-ICE making an emergency landing in the compound of one of our learning institution . The cause is believed due to bad weather. Knowing our local weather, Air traffic Controller should have some idea as how to react to this kind of situation.

At any time, VFR student / GF (VFR rated) pilot under our control will face the towering CB or any other significant weather phenomenon. The controller is the only person that can help him in this unusual and stressing situation.

Here are some of the action that may be helpful to the pilot.

First of all, the pilot need to be instill with confidence. Panicking is the worst enemy worst enemy for the pilot in this time of distress. Talk to them but keep the instructions simple. Any complicated instructions will confused and increase the pilot anxiety. Make them to trust their instrument.

Among the first few things to ensure are to keep the aircraft wings level and the speed constant. Advise them about the minimum sector altitude and climb it as required.

Collect as much information regarding type of conditions encountered, their experience in instrument flying, POB, altitude, track, speed and remaining endurance. art 8 - VFR Emergencies

ADVISE

a) • keep wings level

b) • keep speed constant

c) • trust instruments

d) • LSALT

OBTAIN

a) • time in IMC

b) • type of conditions encountered

c) • pilot instrument flight experience

d) • availability of autopilot and pilot competence in its use

e) • POB

f) • last observed/known position, altitude, track and speed

g) • total remaining endurance

MANOEUVRING

a) • no abrupt manoeuvres

b) • shallow climbs/descents/turns

c) • turn first, establish straight and level then climb/descend

d) • suggest use of autopilot if equipped and competent

OPTIONS

a) • reciprocal track (return to last VMC area)

b) • climb above tops and proceed to known breaks in cloud

c) • descent below base (consider LSALT)

d) • other track to VMC areas or clear landing ground

CONSIDER

a) • retaining experienced pilot for assistance if available

b) • clearing frequency

c) • pilot preferences

d) • obtaining reports of areas of known VMC from

e) • other aircraft

## Tuesday, August 4, 2009

### GO AROUND VS OVERSHOOT

4.8 GO AROUND

Chapter 4. Aerodrome control: aircraft 4-15 Doc 9432

4.8.1 Instructions to carry out a missed approach may be given to avert an unsafe situation. When a missed approach is initiated, cockpit workload is inevitably high. Any transmissions to aircraft going around should be brief and kept to a minimum.

.

ATC: FASTAIR 345 GO AROUND AIRCRAFT ON THE RUNWAY

PILOT: GOING AROUND FASTAIR 345

4.8.2 Unless instructions are issued to the contrary, an aircraft on an instrument approach will carry out the missed approach procedure and an aircraft operating VFR will continue in the normal traffic circuit.

4.8.3 In the event that the missed approach is initiated by the pilot, the phrase “GOING AROUND” shall be used.

PILOT: GOING AROUND G-CD

ATC: G-CD ROGER REPORT DOWNWIND

OUR MRTF

 f. Clearance cancelled and acft not to land. Additional remarks to be added if necessary Note: The civil acft will initiate overshoots as low as minima once going round instruction was given. (ATC) (C/Sign) GO ROUND (reason) or (C/Sign) GO ROUND FROM BASE (reason) (Pilot) (C/Sign) BASE GOING ROUND

School of Air Traffic (SATC) Phraselogy Handbook

Circumstance: Runway occupied with threshold vacant

TWR: [ACID] AT THE MINIMA GO AROUND.

Circumstance: Runway threshold occupied and will remain so.

TWR: [ACID] GO AROUND FROM BASE THRESHOLD OCCUPIED.

Remarks: Going around is the standard phrase to be use when the ATC want the pilot to discontinue their approach (either from final or CCT). So if the pilot changed his intention from wanting to use the runway to aborting his approach.

As for the phrase “over shoot”, the actual English meaning is “go past”(a point). In the case of of air traffic control, it is for the pilot to indicate that the pilot intent of not to use the runway.

My suggestion:

We, THE AIRFORCE atc should use the term go around when the pilot need to discontinue his approach.

### PROCEDURAL CONTROL

Departures

IFR Aircraft Remaining in CTA

 2345 220 I C130 4334 M PEL492 SMC 132.6 07/0400 DCT 256 WMKS

COORD

· SMCt calls for clearance

SMC: “START UP, RMF 492 FOR BWTH, REQUEST CLEARANCE”

Actions: 1. Move the strip into the active bay.

2. Call Lumpur for clearance.

3. Issue the clearance. Write on the strip as you are speaking.

COORD: ‘START UP, RMF 492 FOR SUBANG, FLIGHT LEVEL 220 REQUEST CLEARANCE”

LUMPUR: ‘RMF 492 CLEARED TO SUBANG VIA W533 G582 6 AMENDED LEVEL FLIGHT LEVEL 200, SQUAWK 4334

Actions 1. Write on the FPS and readback

COORD: RMF 492 CLEARED TO SUBANG VIA W533 G582 6 AMENDED LEVEL FLIGHT LEVEL 200, SQUAWK 4334’

Issue the exact clearance through the coldline with additional of the type of departure Ie ADNUT DEP

COORD: PEL492 CLEARED TO SUBANG VIA W533 G582 AMENDED LEVEL FLIGHT LEVEL 200 ADNUT DEPARTURE SQUAWK 4334’

Actions cont: 4. Tick the clearance as the SMC reads it back. (Check the readback for accuracy.)

5. Record a clearance issue time in box 7b.

 2345 KS via W533ü G582ü ADNUT ü 220 180ü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 07/0400 DCT 256 WMKS

· SMC calls Coords using the coldline advising that the aircraft is taxiing.

COORD: “APPROACH”

SMC: “TAXIES PEL492”

Actions: 1. Record the active runway in box 7.

2 Pass the strip over to Approach, placing them in the bay to the right of Approach’s active bay in the order that SMC advised taxi.

· Aircraft departs

Once the aircraft departs, it will transmit a departure report to Approach, who will record the details on the strip as detailed below.

“”School Approach PEL492 departed 47 ADNUT departure passing 2000’ on climb to 8000’ estimating TEMERLOH 59.

 2345 48ü 47 KS viaW533ü G582ü ADNUT üü 220 180üü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 07/0400 TEM@59 M80 20 DCT 256 WMKS

It is Coordinator’s responsibility to scan Approach’s active bay to check for the departure times. A departure call, consisting of the departure and transfer time, then needs to be completed to the appropriate sector.

The aircraft will transfer to sector at 40DME, therefore a transfer time needs to be calculated. (if the pilot didn’t tell us) This is based on aircraft performance and the following guidelines should be used:

1. 8-9 minutes for jets (F18, MiG29, HAWK, B737, B707)

2. 12 minutes for high performance turboprops (, ATR72, C130, PC7)

3. 15-20 minutes for piston engine aircraft (PA31, E110, C172)

Alternatively, an estimate for 40DME can be calculated by subtracting the time it would take to fly from the next reporting point to 40DME.

SECTOR: “LUMPUR”

COORD: “SCHOOL APPROACH, DEPARTURE PEL492, 47, TRANSFER 59”

SECTOR: “PEL492”

Actions: 1. Ticked the COORDINATION.

2. Hang up the coldline.

APPROACH

· Next call from Tower.

TWR: “NEXT PEL492”

Actions: 1. Pick the strip up and walk it into your bay. Forms of separation with other departures may be:

Tower separation

Vertical

Time departure standards

2. Place the strip in the bay, cocked out, when you reach your first vertical restriction. Continue walking the strip through the rest of the stack with your finger.

3. Once you have walked all the way to the top of the bay and “touched wood” you should have established a separation standard with all the strips in the bay. So you can then place the strip fully in the bay

4. Issue departure instructions to Tower while writing them in box 4b and box 5c for level.

5. Record the expected on frequency time in box 3a (current time plus 3 minutes)

 2345 48ü 47 KS viaW533ü G582ü ADNUTüü 220 180üü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 07/0400 TEM@59 47 M80ü 20 DCT 256 WMKS

· Aircraft calls Approach for the first time.

PEL492: “”School Approach PEL492 departed 47, ADNUT departure passing 2000’ on climb to 8000’ estimating TEMERLOH 59.

Actions: 1. Make the following strip annotations:

- tick the expected on frequency time,

- record the actual departure time in box 2,

- tick the type of departure

- tick the level on climb to in box 5,

- record the estimate for the next tracking point in box 11.

Use the saying “tick, time, tick, tick time” to assist you in remembering what to record.

 2345 48ü 47 KS viaW533ü G582ü ADNUTüü 220 180üü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 07/0400 TEM@59 47 M80ü 20 DCT 256 WMKS

Actions cont. 2. Instruct the aircraft to report established on track, outside a lat sep distance that proves lateral separation with following departures. The distance required should be planned for prior to the aircraft calling. Once decided upon, the distance can be recorded in box 11. In addition, level reports and radial crossing reports may be required to prove separation.

APP: “PEL492, SCHOOL APPROACH, REPORT ESTABLISHED ON TRACK AT 10 DME”

PEL492: “PEL492”

· Aircraft reports established on track.

PEL492: “PEL492, ESTABLISHED ON TRACK, 10 DME”

Write the distance at which the pilot had to report.

Actions: 1. Tick the radial on box 10b.

2. Record the time and correct distance reported at in box 11.

 2345 48ü 47 KS viaW533ü G582ü ADNUTüü 220 180üü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 07/0400 TEM@59 10D@52 47 M80ü 20 DCT 256ü WMKS

Actions cont 3. Move the strip above any other arrivals that you now have lateral separation with, stating the separation standard out aloud. If you don’t have the required lateral separation standard, request another report that will facilitate it.

4. Place the strip with any other departures at the top of the bay in vertical and/or order that they will switch to Lumpur Control.

5. If able, issue the aircraft climb to cleared level and instruct it to switch to Lumpur Control at 40DME/TAC.

APP: “PEL492, CLIMB TO FL180, AT 40DME CONTACT LUMPUR132.6, REPORT SWITCHING.”

PEL492: “CLIMB TO FL180, 132.6, PEL492”

Actions cont 6. Cross out the old level.

7. Place an “@”in box 11.

8. Tick the new level and frequency when the aircraft reads it back.

 2345 48ü 47 KS viaW533ü G582ü ADNUTüü 220 180üü I C130 4334 ü M PEL492 SMC 36 40 132.6 59 07/0400 TEM@59 10D@52 40D @59 47 M80ü 20 DCT 256ü WMKS

· Aircraft reports switching.

PEL492: “PEL492, SWITCHING LUMPUR 132.6

Actions: 1. Record the time next to the frequency in box 9.

2. Move the strip out of the active bay.

3. Acknowledge the aircraft.

APP: “PEL492”